New York Real Estate Brokers Then and Now

I have been a licensed real estate person since 1971. Though I have dabbled in residential brokerage, I mostly have been a property manager and commercial broker. There have been many changes in the way we do business in that time. Most of the changes have resulted in a vast improvement over the old ways. Technology has made our job so much easier. And the commercial brokers of today are much better educated than when I began.

Forty years ago, being a broker was depended on your intuitive ability to use a “seat of your pants” philosophy in procuring deals. Many men (and it was overwhelmingly male) had come to the business not with a college degree but had previously worked in the industries that they now specialized in as real estate brokers. One day, I was in a sewing factory with an old broker who was speaking to the owner of the company. The broker noticed that one of the foremen was having trouble fixing one of the sewing machines. The broker went over and had the machine working in no time. In a heavy East European accent, he told the owner that he had had his own factory when he came from Europe. Needless to say, he snagged a client that day.

New York City, including Manhattan, still had thousands of factories in the 1970’s. There was definitely a divide between the corporate offices of midtown proper and the rest of the city. If you were a broker outside that corporate sphere you needed to be not only entrepreneurial and tenacious but also someone who could negotiate a deal. The broker really had to work to bring the landlord and tenant together. What is more, they didn’t disappear once leases were drawn. Lawyers in most deals were non-existent.

Another thing that is so different today is that I don’t remember discussing a commission until the deal was actually completed. In those days, if you were a member of the local board, the commission rates were published. When acting as a broker, I never hesitated to take less commission in order to finish a deal. As an owner or agent, I often asked brokers to throw something into the pot. Things were just done differently.

The nature of the clientele has also changed. From one end of Manhattan to the other, office space dominates areas that were once home to a diverse manufacturing base. Industries such as “tech” or “bio medical” were not even known then. With those new and emerging demographics, the real estate industry needed to change. The past real estate community could not serve the present tenant base. A much more educated and corporate-type broker came into the picture. Sid Fine retired to make way for Taylor Colucci.

Though I went to college and worked to receive professional designations, I was schooled in real estate by the immigrant/depression/WWII generation. When I began in the business, the garment center was alive with hand trucks and racks of clothes bustling on the streets and sidewalks. There was a fur district where mink pelts were sown together. SoHo was known as the butter and egg district. The meat market was at 14th Street and 9th Avenue when Chelsea was a working class neighborhood of long shore men and other blue collar workers. The city was a much different place than today.

Between the 1930’s and the early 1970’s, office technology changed very little. We still had big, black rotary phones on our desks. While there was one IBM Selectric typewriter in our office, but the majority were still manual. Carbon paper was abundant as were ash trays full of cigarette butts. Wite Out was as important then as a charging cord for a cell phone is now. It was a long way from the technology we enjoy today which has made each of us so much more productive.

The city was different, the real estate industry was different, and the brokers were different. Was one generation better than the other? No, I don’t think so… just different. The old guys were characters, they had distinct personalities. They were not interchangeable wonks without any discernible accents or idiosyncratic traits. I sort of miss the challenge of dealing with them because, at the end of the negotiation no matter what the outcome, there was always a little knowing smile of how silly most of the posturing had been.

Nine Questions to Ask Before Committing to a New Commercial Real Estate Loan or Multifamily Loan

Property owners sometimes focus almost exclusively on the interest rate and the period for which it is fixed when choosing a new commercial real estate loan or multifamily loan. However, other factors have a significant impact on the “total cost of capital” and can limit or expand owner options later on. Before signing on the dotted line, be sure you have answered these nine questions.

1. What are your plans for the property and your objectives in refinancing?

Choosing the most advantageous financing solution for your apartment or commercial property involves weighing tradeoffs between the terms and conditions of alternative loan options. Making sound choices begins with a clear understanding or your plans for the property and objectives in refinancing. Is it likely that the property will be sold in the future and if so when? Are you reliant on income generated from the property now or are you looking to maximize income from the property in the future, perhaps after retirement? Is there deferred maintenance that needs to be addressed now or in the near future? Is remodeling or other major upgrades or repairs expected in the next 5 to 10 years? Will you need to access the equity in your property for other investments, for example, to purchase another property?

2. What happens after the fixed period?

Some commercial property or multifamily loans become due and payable at the end of the fixed period and others. These are often called “hybrid” loans and they convert to variable rate loans after the fixed period. A commercial real estate loan or multifamily loan that becomes due after the 5, 7 or 10 year fixed period may force refinancing at an unfavorable time. Financial markets may be such that refinancing options are expensive or unavailable. Or local market conditions may have resulted in increased vacancies or reduced rents, making your property less attractive to lenders. Frequently the lowest interest rate deals are for loans that become due at the end of the fixed period and include more restrictive pre-payment penalties (see question #4). Hybrid loans convert to an adjustable rate loan with the new rate being based on a spread over either LIBOR or the prime rate and adjusting every 6 months.

3. What is the term of the loan and the amortization period?

The term of the loan refers to when the loan becomes due and payable. The amortization period refers to the period of time over which the principal payments are amortized for the purpose of computing the monthly payment. The longer the amortization period the lower the monthly payment will be, all other things being equal. For apartment or multifamily properties, 30 year amortizations are generally available. For commercial properties, 30 year amortizations are more difficult to come by, with many lenders going no longer than 25 years. A loan with a 30 year amortization may have a lower payment than a loan with a 25 year amortization even if it carries a slightly higher interest rate. In most cases the term of the loan is shorter than the amortization period. For example, the loan may be due and payable in ten years, but amortized over 25 years.

4. If loan converts to a variable rate after the fixed period, how is the variable rate determined?

The variable rate is determined based upon a spread or margin over an index rate. The index rate is generally the six-month LIBOR or, less often, the prime rate. The interest rate is computed by adding the spread to the index rate. The spread varies but is most often between 2.5% and 3.5%. The rate adjustment most often occurs every 6 months until the loan becomes due. There is generally a cap on how much the rate can move at an adjustment point. However, some lenders have no cap on the first adjustment. This leaves the owner open to a large payment increase if rates have moved significantly.

5. What are the prepayment penalties?

Almost all fixed rate commercial property loans and apartment loans contain some form of pre-payment penalty, meaning there is an additional cost to you if you pay off the loan early, which may occur if you want to refinance or you are selling the property or if you want to make payments greater than the scheduled monthly payments. Prepayment penalties generally take the form of a set prepayment schedule, a yield maintenance agreement or, defeasance. A set prepayment schedule predetermines the penalty expressed as a percentage of the loan balance at payoff and declines as the loan ages. For example, the prepayment schedule for a 5 year fixed loan might be quoted as “4,3,2,1” meaning the penalty to pay off the loan is 4% of the balance in year 1, 3% in year 2, etc. A yield maintenance agreement requires a penalty computed using a formula designed to compensate the lender for the lost interest revenue for the remaining term of the loan over a risk-free rate and discounted to a present value. The formula can be complex, but the result is almost always a more punitive penalty than a set prepayment schedule and will generally make early pay-off financially unviable. The third type of penalty, defeasance, is used less often. It works like a yield maintenance agreement in that its intent is to keep the lender whole for the lost interest revenue but it accomplishes that by requiring the borrower to substitute other securities that would replace the lost revenue instead of making cash payment. Often the most attractive interest rates offered are associated with loans with either a yield maintenance agreement or defeasance. There is generally a window starting 180 to 90 days before the loan is due when the penalty expires to allow time to arrange refinancing. These loans generally become due at the end of the fixed period.

6. What are all the fees and charges associated with closing the new loan?

Refinancing can be costly and knowing all the costs is essential to evaluating if refinancing is the right choice. The biggest costs are for appraisals, title insurance, escrow fees, environmental review, points, and processing and/or loan fees. Appraisal fees will run $2,000 and up. Phase I Environmental Assessment cost $1,000 and up. Processing and/or loan fees charged by the lender begin about $1,500 and rise from there. Points may or may not be charged by the lender. Some lenders, particularly on apartment or multifamily loans, will cap the expenses at $2,500 to $3,000, excluding title and escrow. It is important understand the total costs in comparison to the monthly savings in debt service resulting from refinancing. How many months will it take to recoup the costs of refinancing?

7. Is the loan assumable and at what cost?

Many, but not all, commercial real estate loans are assumable. There is generally a fee, often 1% of the balance, and the assuming party must be approved by the lender. Assumability is critical for loans with significant pre-payment penalties, like those with yield maintenance or defeasance clauses, if there is some chance you will sell the commercial or apartment property during the life of the loan.

8. Are there impounds and if so what are they?

Some commercial real estate loans and apartment loans will require impounds for property taxes or for insurance. A monthly amount is determined and then collected in addition to each principal and interest payment sufficient to cover the property tax and insurance bills as they come due. Such impounds will affect your cash flow from the property because monies for property taxes and/or insurance are collected in advance of when they are actually due. Impounds increase the effective interest rate on the loan because they amount to an interest free loan the owner is making to the lender.

9. Does the lender allow secondary financing?

Finding secondary or second lien financing has become quite difficult and many lenders do not allow it under the terms of the loan. However, market conditions may change, making this type of lending more available. If you have a relatively low loan to value and there is a chance you might want to access the equity in your property to pay for major repairs or remodeling, to acquire additional properties, or for other purposes, a loan that allows secondary financing can be beneficial.

Securing a letter of interest from a lender can be time consuming. Many owners approach only their existing lender or a well-known commercial bank lender in their area and assume that the offer they get is the best available. This is not always the case. In many cases, smaller or lesser known lenders offer the most aggressive or flexible terms. There is no way of knowing without getting multiple quotes. A good commercial loan broker can be very beneficial in securing for you multiple letters of interest and helping you compare the terms and conditions of each and select the solution that best meets your goals and plans.

The “New Luxury Real Estate” is Environmentally Friendly

According to wikipedia, the continually updated free on-line encyclopedia, “luxury real estate” is defined as a home with an appraised value estimated above $1 million. But, what makes a luxury home retain its luxury appeal today, goes beyond appraised value. Homeowners are becoming increasingly aware of the inevitable effect of our consumer lifestyles. The 2001 California blackouts, the Northeast blackout of 2003, and the hurricanes that left some Florida residents without power for weeks, have all been wake-up calls for homeowners dependent on our obviously fallible power grids. So, let it be known that, “bigger is better” is not always equated with luxury these days. There is a new breed of luxury that touts high tech, energy efficiency as the ‘it’ thing.

With technologies that help recycle rain water, provide solar-powered heating and building techniques that better insulate homes, it is possible to get a beautiful, luxurious home that is technologically advanced and environmentally friendly. Many of these sustainable options may save money in the long run with reduced energy consumption, but their installation can carry a substantial price tag. For luxury and custom homeowners wanting to keep up with global trends, “green” improvements will keep your home competitive in the US and world markets.

Custom homeowners are in the perfect position to make a difference in the way their houses are built — to lead by example and take measures to ensure that their homes are comfortable and responsible.

Here are some environmental upgrades that the new luxury homes are boasting:

– Site designs that are permeable so that the amount of storm water run-off from hard surfaces can be limited.

– Since luxury homes are usually built for the long term, owners may choose to take things a step further by setting up more extensive water systems. Gray water use, high efficiency fixtures, and rain water collection systems are available and often come with rebates from local water providers. Systems for collecting and reusing water can be implemented for irrigation purposes.

– With a larger budget choices become more accessible. Renewable energy sources such as solar power and geothermal heating and cooling have become popular in luxury and custom homes.

– In addition to maximizing natural light and ventilation, intelligent lighting and room-conditioning are wise additions. With smart lighting controls, energy loads and costs will be significantly reduced.

After all, it is impossible to have luxury when you have yet to contend with necessity. These new luxury homes provide great comfort and extravagance and will continue to do so, off the grid and on their own terms.